EXAM 2 - PREPARATION TOPICS

Chapters 8-25 - HISTORY OF CALIFORNIA: THE MULTICULTURAL STATE

CHAPTER 8: THE GOLD RUSH

  • Francisco Lopez
  • Quartz mining
  • James Wilson Marshall
  • Sutter’s mill
  • Forty eighters
  • Samuel Brannan
  • Gold fever
  • Forty-niners
  • Isthmus of Panama
  • Arrastra
  • Cape Horn
  • California trail
  • Mother lode
  • Placer mining
  • Rocker
  • “long tom”
  • Hydraulic mining
  • Sluice
  • Mining codes

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. Describe the various land and sea routes the forty niners followed to the California gold fields. Indicate the advantages and disadvantages of each.

2. Evaluate the positive and negative effects of the gold rush on California history

3. Speculate on how California cold have developed without the gold rush

CHAPTER 9: A NEW STATE AND FRONTIER POLITICS

  • Alcalde Bennet Riley
  • William Gwin
  • Constitutional convention of 1849
  • California state seal
  • California state capital
  • Thomas Jefferson Green
  • Compromise of 1850
  • David C. Broderick
  • Know Nothing party
  • David S. Terry
  • Pico's plan for state division
  • California election of 1861
  • California Battalion

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the reasons for the confused legal and political status of California from the outbreak of the Mexican War until the achievement of statehood.

2. What was the nature of the Monterey constitutional convention? Who were the delegates, and what were the major decisions made?

Chapter 10: CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

  • Vigilantism (causes and results of).
  • The Hounds
  • San Francisco committee of Vigilance (1851 and 1856)
  • Juanita
  • James P. Casey
  • Law and Order party
  • Fort Gunneybags
  • People’s Party.

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. What were the psychological, political, economic, and social factors which contributed to the emergence of vigilantism in early American California?

2. Explain the formation and actions of the vigilance committees outside of San Francisco.

Chapter 11: RACIAL OPPRESSION AND ECONOMIC CONFLICT

  • Gringos envidiosos
  • Foreign Miners’ license tax
  • “poco mas o menos”
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • Henry Halleck’s report
  • Sacramento ‘squatter riot”
  • William Carey Jones
  • Gwin Act of 1851
  • Las Mariposas
  • Rancho San Antonio
  • ”credit ticket’ system
  • People v. Hall
  • Edward F. Beale
  • Modoc Indians
  • Ishi
  • Alfred L. Kroeber
  • Arche Lee
  • Franchise League
  • Federal Civil Rights Act
  • 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • People vs. Hall
  • Coolie
  • Ward v. Flood (1874)

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the system of determining the validity of Mexican land titles under the Gwin Act of 1851. How were the Mexican grantees placed at a disadvantage? What was the final outcome of the process?

2. Compare the nature of racial discrimination against Mexicans, Chinese, Indians, and African Americans during the 1850s and 1860s. What forms did this discrimination take, and which group suffered the worst kind of oppression?

CHAPTER 13: BUILDING THE CENTRAL PACIFIC RAILROAD

  • California Steam Navigation Company
  • Overland Mail Company
  • Theodore D. Judah
  • Daniel W. Strong
  • Collis P. Huntington
  • Leland Stanford
  • Charles Crocker
  • Mark Hopkins
  • Pacific Railroad Act of 1862
  • Edwin B. Crocker
  • The Great Dutch Flat Swindle
  • "Crocker's Pets"
  • Promotory, Utah.

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. What was the contribution of Theodore D. Judah to the transcontinental railroad? Do you think the history of California would have been different if Judah had fulfilled his goal of taking over leadership of the Central Pacific Railroad?

2. Explain the federal and state aid given to the Central pacific Railroad. What was the nature of this support? How was it justified?

3. Describe the critical role played by Chinese laborers in the building of the Central Pacific.

CHAPTER 14: THE "TERRIBLE SEVENTIES"

  • Depression of the 1870s
  • Burlingame Treaty of 1868
  • Henry Miller
  • Charles Lux
  • Battle of Mussel Slough
  • Mills D. Hart
  • Bank of California
  • William Chapman Ralston
  • Comstock boom of the 1870s
  • Sutro tunnel

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the positive and negative effects of the completion of the transcontinental railroad.

2. Trace the evolution of the Big Four's transportation and land monopolies in California. What were its effects on California society?

CHAPTER 15: POLITICAL TURMOIL AND A NEW CONSTITUTION

  • Burlingame Treaty of 1868
  • Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
  • Civil Rights Act of 1870
  • "anti-coolie clubs"
  • Workingmen's party of California
  • Committee on Public Safety
  • William T. Coleman
  • Denis Kearney
  • Constitution of 1879
  • Chinese exclusion Act
  • Joseph and Mary Tape

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. Explain the reasons for California's political upheaval of the 1870's. Why did the Workingman's party emerge at this time? What was its main platform?

2. Summarize the main provisions of the constitution of 1879. Why did this constitution generally fail to reform California state government?

3. How did the Chinese view the discrimination they suffered in California during the 1870's and 1880's? What actions did they take to oppose this treatment?

CHAPTER 16: ECONOMIC GROWTH

  • California wheat bonanza
  • Dr. Hugh J. Glenn
  • "Stockton gang plow"
  • Agoston Haraszthy
  • California Fruit Grower's Exchange
  • Southern California "health rush"
  • Sunset magazine
  • Our West magazine
  • "Oranges for Health-California for Wealth"
  • "Riparian rights"
  • Lux vs. Haggin (1886)
  • Wright Irrigation Act of 1887
  • George Chaffey

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1 Explain the beginning of the wheat, wine, and citrus industries in California. What role did the state's geography, climate, and technological improvements play in their development?

2. Explain the major controversies over California water use in the nineteenth century. What measures were taken to resolve these controversies?

CHAPTER 18: POLITICS IN THE ERA OF RAILROAD DOMINATION

  • The "Colton letters"
  • Huntington-Stanford feud
  • Los Angeles free harbor fights
  • The "funding bill"
  • Adolph Sutro
  • Southern Pacific "machine"
  • William F. Herrin
  • Justice Stephen J. Field
  • Newton Booth
  • Independent Taxpayers' reform party of California
  • Populist party

1. What was the impact of the Colton letters, the Los Angeles free harbor fight, the Huntington-Stanford feud, and the funding bill controversy on the image of the Southern Pacific in California?

CHAPTER 19: LABOR AND CAPITAL

  • Union Labor party of San Francisco
  • Andrew Furuseth
  • "open shop"
  • "closed shop"
  • Harry Gray Otis
  • Los Angeles Times
  • "The Right to Work"
  • L.A. Times explosion
  • William J. Burns
  • McNamara brothers
  • California's "peculiar institution"
  • Industrial Workers of the World
  • Free speech fights
  • "Wheatland riots"
  • Ralph Durst

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. What were the unique California circumstances that gave rise to the pattern of alien, nonwhite, migratory agricultural labor in the state?

2. Explain the goals and methods of the IWW in California. Why did the efforts of the Wobblies met with only limited success?

CHAPTER 20: THE ROOTS OF REFORM

  • Abraham Ruef
  • Union Labor party
  • Eugene E. Schmitz
  • San Francisco earthquake and fire
  • Fremont Older
  • San Francisco graft prosecution
  • Los Angeles Good Government League
  • Initiative, referendum and recall
  • Lincoln Roosevelt League
  • "The Shame of California"
  • Hiram W. Johnson

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. What was the nature of city corruption in San Francisco politics in the early 1900?

2. Describe the leadership, goals, and results of the San Francisco graft prosecution.

CHAPTERS 21: THE REPUBLICAN PROGRESSIVES IN POWER

  • Initiative, referendum and recall
  • Cross filing
  • Bull Moose party
  • Woman suffrage
  • Workmen's compensation
  • Col. Allen Allensworth
  • Anti Japanese movement
  • Picture brides
  • Gentlemen's agreement
  • Heney-Webb alien land law

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. What was the relationship between the progressive leaders and the anti-Japanese movement in California? What rationalizations and political considerations motivated them to support this movement?

CHAPTER 22: THE TRIUMPH OF CONSERVATISM

  • Socialist movement
  • Thomas J. Mooney
  • Warren K. Billings
  • Criminal syndicalism law
  • "the American plan"
  • Prohibition
  • Federal immigration act of 1924
  • A.P. Giannini
  • Bank of Italy

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

What were the provisions of California'a criminal syndicalism law? How was it used during the 1920s to suppress radical political activities in the state?

CHAPTER 23: NEW INDUSTRIES FOR SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

  • Edward L. Doheney
  • "Gusher Charlie"
  • Standard Oil Company of Ca.
  • Benjamin Silliman
  • Elk Hills Affair
  • Albert B. Fall
  • Model T
  • California State Automobile Association
  • "Miracle mile"
  • D.W. Griffith
  • Mary Pichford
  • The Birth of a Nation
  • "talkies"

CHAPTER 24: CONTROVERSIES OVER LAND AND WATER

  • Yosemite park
  • Frederick Law Olmsted
  • John Muir
  • Preservationism
  • "utilitarian" conservationism
  • Hetch Hetchy Valley
  • OwensValley-Los Angeles Aqueduct
  • William Mulholland
  • Boulder Canyon project
  • Colorado River Aqueduct

CHAPTER 25: THE GREAT DEPRESSION

  • James Rolph, Jr.
  • "Gov. Lynch"
  • Social messiahs
  • Technocracy
  • Ham'n Eggs
  • EPIC
  • Dr. Francisc Townsend
  • CAWIU
  • International Longshormen's Association
  • Harry Bridges
  • General Strike of 1934
  • Repatriation
  • Upton Sinclair

ESSAY/DISCUSSION QUESTIONS:

1. Summarize the major programs of the technocrats, the Townsendites, and the Ham'nEggers. Why were these social messiahs so popular in California during the 1930's?

2. Explain the renewed struggle between labor and employers in California during the 1930's. What was the role of teh CAWIU in strikes by farm workers? What were the causes and what was the outcome of the San Francisco waterfront and general strikes of 1834?

From: Instructor’s manual by Gregory Tilles.